Papillomas are single or multiple benign formations that appear in different parts of the body. Externally, they appear in the form of papillae with a base. The consistency is dense or soft. The color can range from light brown to dark brown.
Papillomas on the skin spoil the appearance, on the mucous membranes of internal anatomical structures they cause bleeding and the appearance of ulcers, in the larynx they impair breathing and change the timbre of the voice. It is possible to get rid of growths using surgical excision, electrocoagulation, laser, cryodestruction and other methods.
Papillomas are benign neoplasms that affect the skin and epithelial cell structures. The main cause of its occurrence is infection with a human papilloma virus (with a high or low level of oncogenicity).
The ICD-10 disease code is D23. The classification of the pathological condition depends on the location of the lesion. For example, if the pathology appears on the neck or on the head in the hair, then it is assigned the code D23. 4, if it is located on the arms and shoulder - D23. 6, if it affects the abdomen, pubic part in men and women, chest and back - D23. 5 and so on.
It should be noted that papilloma has a predisposition to degenerate into a malignant form.
There are several types of papillomatous formations, which differ in structure, shape, color and other characteristics.
It is one of the most common types of papillomavirus. In this case, the formation of papillomas on the skin can be provoked by several types of strains at once. According to statistics, about 30% of the population has encountered them at least once.
The most common location for common warts is the upper limbs, particularly the hands. However, such growths can cover the body, palms, toes, and other surfaces.
These warts appear in areas of skin lesions due to a decrease in the local immune system.
Outwardly, vulgar papillomas resemble papillae. At the early stages of development, the diameter cannot exceed 2 millimeters. The head of the wart is soft with a uniform structure, rising above the surface of the epidermis.
When such forms appear, slight pigmentation is noted. Due to the constant supply of nutrients due to root growth deep in the skin, the growths gradually become larger.
Often in the central part you can observe the appearance of a hair, which indicates the benign nature of the formation.
These are seals with a thin shaft and a head at the top. Such shoots cannot be confused with other varieties due to the peculiarities of their structure.
The appearance of papillomas on the body of this variety is observed after 45 years in places with thin skin. They form particularly in the armpits, on the sternum in women and men and in the neck area.
As tumors increase in size, they stretch and grow. The head of the growths is yellow or pink in color. The level of pigmentation is low.
In appearance, they look like small plaques that rise slightly above the surface of the skin. The root has a dense structure and grows deep into the layers of the dermis, which can be indicated by the appearance of painful sensations due to mechanical impact or injury.
Such growths are most often located on the upper limbs. There are also papillomas on the face. In some cases, neoplasms of this type appear in the anal region, on the pubic region in men and on the labia majora in women. Due to the fact that in these places they receive active nutrition, they begin to actively develop.
Flat papillomas are difficult to treat. After removal, a scar or scar remains at the growth site.
Outwardly, they resemble papillae, the size of which does not exceed 2-3 millimeters in diameter. Neoplasms tend to grow quickly: from a small growth, large growths appear on the skin. The shape resembles a cockscomb or cauliflower.
The danger of this type of condyloma is that there is a high probability of developing infectious and inflammatory processes in women in the area of the labia minora or vagina. Such formations are easily injured, which can cause infection.
The problem with these papillomas is that they are prone to frequent relapses even after treatment with antiviral drugs or surgery.
The cause of papillomatosis of the skin of the feet is the presence of viral strains of types 1, 2 and 4 in the body. The elements resemble calluses, but in appearance they resemble simple papillomas. They also differ in that under mechanical pressure they hurt, they do not have a skin pattern.
Plantar papillomas are prone to self-destruction, especially if they affect a child's body. Often, small bubbles begin to form near the primary lesion. Over time, they transform, which contributes to the appearance of mosaic papillomatosis.
This type of growth occurs in rare cases, mainly in young children. Their infection occurs at the time of childbirth, if the mother at that time had genital warts on her genitals.
Filiform warts are most often located on the face. They can be located under the eyes, on the forehead, on the ear, on the neck in both men and women. Vulgar type neoplasms are characterized by their appearance on the heels and hands. In addition, warts can be found on the fingers, buttocks, thighs, elbows, in the navel, under the mammary glands, papillomas under the arms, on the tongue, in the throat and in other parts of thebody.
Generally speaking, papillomatosis refers to a generalized disease in which the entire body is covered with papillomas.
Also, neoplasms can affect the liver, oral cavity, respiratory tract, lungs, kidneys and others.
The human papillomavirus is present in almost every body and does not make itself felt for a long time. However, under certain circumstances, it begins to become more active, thereby causing papilloma-like growths to appear on the skin.
The development of the pathological process can be influenced by various factors. The most common are:
- frequent sex changethe partners;
- noncompliancehygienicstandards of the oral cavity and intimate area;
- organ diseasesgastrointestinal- intestinal tract;
- breachexchangeprocess ;
- receptioncytostaticsor hormonal medications.
The main risk factor for infection in men is considered to be bad habits that contribute to a weakening of the immune system. Regular inhalation of tobacco smoke increases the risk of developing laryngeal papillomatosis.
Routes of infection
Experts distinguish 4 types of transmission of the human papillomavirus.
This path is considered one of the most common. The virion can enter the human body at any time during sexual contact. It should also be taken into account that barrier contraceptives can only prevent infection of the genitals, while the perineum and pubis are not protected.
The survival rate of the virus is high in a humid environment. In this case, infection is possible when visiting a public place, for example, a bathhouse, swimming pool, sauna or toilet. The virus can also enter the body through the skin using someone else's washcloth or towel.
Infection is possible at the moment when the damaged area of the skin comes into contact with the injured papilloma. This process is called autoinfection, when the carrier of the disease himself transfers virions from a pathological area of the body to healthy areas.
From mother to fetus
The virus does not have the ability to enter the placenta. However, infection is possible at the time when the fetus passes through the mother's birth canal.
If you suspect the development of papillomatosis, it is recommended to contact a venereologist and dermatologist.
A final diagnosis can only be made based on the results obtained during the examination.
During the appointment, the doctor identifies all types of formations present on the human body. They are examined and certain notes are taken. If anogenital warts are detected, the patient is referred for examination by a gynecologist. Men can have a ureteroscopy.
This is a diagnostic procedure that involves examining the female genitalia. To carry out the manipulation, a special device is used - a colposcope. Thanks to the drugs used during the examination, it is possible not only to detect the virus, but also to assess the nature of its manifestation.
The polymerase chain reaction makes it possible to detect infection, as well as to establish the presence of other pathological processes that can be sexually transmitted.
Implies a classification dividing the pathology into 5 classes. The first indicates a normal cytological picture, the second means the presence of a large number of atypical cellular structures that can provoke a cancer process.
Allows you to study the deep areas of the squamous layer, which makes it possible to confirm or refute the presence of koilocytes in them.
Helps to quickly detect high concentrations of viruses in the human body. This type of research has gained popularity due to its accuracy.
If the wart is not dangerous and is not prone to malignancy, no special therapeutic measures are necessary. The doctor will recommend taking medications to strengthen the immune system. If there is a high probability that the growth will become malignant, the optimal treatment option is prescribed.
The vital activity of pathogenic microorganisms can be suppressed using the following antiviral drugs:
- vitamin and mineral complexes;
- immunostimulating agents.
If the development of an oncological process is not confirmed, special ointments can be used at home.
Removing warts is possible in several ways.
A therapeutic procedure that involves exposing papillomas to low temperatures, which ultimately leads to the destruction of pathological structures. With high-quality manipulation, it is possible not only to stop the further growth of tumors, but also to prevent their appearance in the future.
The complexity of this method is that there is no way to control the depth of cold penetration into the tissues. If the procedure is not carried out completely, remnants of the papilloma may remain in the skin, which will lead to its reappearance.
Benign tumors are cauterized by applying an electric current to them. In this case, the doctor presets the device to a certain frequency and voltage. The type of fixation of the device is selected depending on the size and thickness of the growth.
Using a snare, the specialist first removes the rod from the formation, and then cauterizes the element itself. During labor, simultaneous coagulation of the capillaries occurs, which prevents bleeding.
After removal, the operated area is treated with an antiseptic.
The lesion is exposed to a flow of low-frequency radio waves. In this case, the electrodes only capture the damaged areas, healthy tissue remains intact. A sore forms at the site of the removed growth.
The method is considered one of the most popular due to its simplicity and speed of implementation. The session lasts on average no more than a quarter of an hour.
The procedure itself is not accompanied by pain, but the patient may experience slight discomfort.
Burning of papillomas occurs by exposing them to a laser beam, which leads to layer-by-layer evaporation of cells and complete excision of the element.
If you treat papillomas in this way, the risk of relapse is minimized.
Nutrition for papillomas on the body involves the presence of fermented milk, seafood, honey, garlic, onions, vegetables, lean meats and fish in the diet.
If we talk about fruits, it is recommended to eat them between main meals as a snack. It is better to favor yellow, red or orange fruits.
When to delete
Complete removal of papilloma-like formations is recommended if there are numerous papillomas on the neck and other places where there is a high risk of damage that can provoke the development of cancer.
Other indications for withdrawal:
- activeheightwarts, which can lead to more serious disorders in the body;
- planningpregnancy, since it is against the background of hormonal changes that the risk of the appearance of benign and malignant tumors increases.
Additionally, it is necessary to remove growths if they are prone to malignancy.
Why are they dangerous?
The main danger of papillomas is their ability to degenerate into oncological form. Additionally, neoplasms, especially those located in open areas of the body, are more susceptible to injury that can cause bleeding or infection.
Prognosis after withdrawal
If the ablation is poorly performed or incomplete, the papilloma may reappear. To prevent this from happening, it is not recommended to self-medicate.
Additionally, certain types of tumors, by their nature, are prone to recurrence, regardless of the effectiveness of treatment. To avoid this, you must first eliminate the root cause.
Following a number of recommendations will help prevent the disease:
- deal only with protected personssex;
- use only your own itemshygiene;
- strengthen regularlyimmunity;
- eat healthy, quality foodssome products;
- undergo a medical examinationexamas a preventative measure at least once a year.
Papillomas on the body are benign neoplasms, and in most cases they do not cause any discomfort to a person. Certain types of tumors, especially when exposed to certain factors, can become malignant.
To prevent this pathology, when a lump appears, it is recommended to consult a specialist who, if necessary, will prescribe appropriate treatment.